SENSORNETS 2016 Abstracts


Area 1 - Intelligent Data Analysis and Processing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Benchmark Datasets for Fault Detection and Classification in Sensor Data

Authors:

Bas de Bruijn, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Doina Bucur and Kenji Tei

Abstract: Data measured and collected from embedded sensors often contains faults, i.e., data points which are not an accurate representation of the physical phenomenon monitored by the sensor. These data faults may be caused by deployment conditions outside the operational bounds for the node, and short- or long-term hardware, software, or communication problems. On the other hand, the applications will expect accurate sensor data, and recent literature proposes algorithmic solutions for the fault detection and classification in sensor data. In order to evaluate the performance of such solutions, however, the field lacks a set of \emph{benchmark sensor datasets}. A benchmark dataset ideally satisfies the following criteria: (a) it is based on real-world raw sensor data from various types of sensor deployments; (b) it contains (natural or artificially injected) faulty data points reflecting various problems in the deployment, including missing data points; and (c) all data points are annotated with the \emph{ground truth}, i.e., whether or not the data point is accurate, and, if faulty, the type of fault. We prepare and publish three such benchmark datasets, together with the algorithmic methods used to create them: a dataset of 280 temperature and light subsets of data from 10 indoor \emph{Intel Lab} sensors, a dataset of 140 subsets of outdoor temperature data from SensorScope sensors, and a dataset of 224 subsets of outdoor temperature data from 16 \emph{Smart Santander} sensors. The three benchmark datasets total 5.783.504 data points, containing injected data faults of the following types known from the literature: random, malfunction, bias, drift, polynomial drift, and combinations. We present algorithmic procedures and a software tool for preparing further such benchmark datasets.

Area 2 - Sensor Networks Software, Architectures and Applications

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Decentralized Gradient-based Field Motion Estimation with a Wireless Sensor Network

Authors:

Daniel Fitzner and Monika Sester

Abstract: Information on the advection of a spatio-temporal field is an important input to forecasting or interpolation algorithms. Examples include algorithms for precipitation interpolation or forecasting or the prediction of the evolution of dynamic oceanographic features advected by ocean currents. In this paper, an algorithm for the decentralized estimation of motion of a spatio-temporal field by the nodes of a stationary and synchronized Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is presented. The approach builds on the well-known gradient-based optical flow method, which is extended to the specifics of WSNs and spatio-temporal fields, such as spatial irregularity of the samples, the strong constraints on computation and communication and the assumed motion constancy over sampling periods. A specification of the algorithm and a thorough analytical analysis of its communicational and computational complexity is provided. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by simulations of a sensor network and a spatio-temporal moving field.

Area 3 - Energy and Environment

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

The Problem of Measurement Accuracy in Sensor Networks for IAQ Monitoring

Authors:

Andrzej Szczurek, Monika Maciejewska and Tomasz Pietrucha

Abstract: These days, the problem of indoor air quality (IAQ) attracts increasing attention. Presently, IAQ is usually characterised on the basis of the following parameters: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. Because of spatial and temporal variation of these parameters multi-point monitoring systems which operate continuously are preferred. The aim of this work was to show that accuracies of sensors being elements of a network have serious implications for a continuous, fixed-point monitoring of IAQ. The analysis was based on four-point IAQ monitoring study performed in a lecture hall. With reference to the measurement accuracy we computed how likely it was that sensors located in different points recorded the same value of measured quantity and how frequently such situations occurred. It was found that: (1) number of sensors and their displacement affect information provided by the measurement system; (2) these aspects should be considered individually for each parameter describing IAQ ; (3) the sensor device dedicated to each measurement point should be considered individually. By considering these issues in the design process the cost of IAQ monitoring network as well as information redundancy may be reduced.

Area 4 - Sensor Networks Software, Architectures and Applications

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 21
Title:

A Social-based Strategy for Memory Management in Sensor Networks

Authors:

Basim Mahmood and Ronaldo Menezes

Abstract: The technological structure of today’s societies enables people to easily exchange and share their information. This structure contains many sophisticated technologies such as mobile wireless devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets). These devices are mainly used for connecting people with each other. As these devices grow in usability, many issues have become apparent such as memory management, security, and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a novel social-based strategy for memory management in mobile sensor networks. This strategy is inspired from two concepts, namely, social capital in sociology and preferential return mechanism in human mobility. The findings show that the proposed strategy is quite effective in keeping up-to-date information in each sensor/device about the sensor connections. We believe that this is the first work that investigates the issue of memory management in this type of networks using concepts form social networks and human mobility.

Area 5 - Wireless Sensor Networks

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 27
Title:

An Interactive Context-aware Power Management Technique for Optimizing Sensor Network Lifetime

Authors:

Jinseok Yang, Sameer Tilak and Tajana S. Rosing

Abstract: A key problem in sensor networks equipped with renewable energy sources is deciding how to allocate energy to various tasks (sensing, communication etc.) over time so that the deployed network continues to gather high-quality data. The state-of-the-art energy allocation algorithm takes into account current battery level and harvesting energy and fairly allocates as much energy as possible along the time dimension. In this paper we show that by not considering application-context this approach leads to very high and uniform sampling rates. However, sampling the environment at fixed predefined intervals is neither possible (need to accommodate system failures) nor desirable (sampling rate might not capture an important event with desired fidelity). To that end, in this paper we propose a novel interactive power management technique that adapts sampling rate as a function of both application-level context (e.g., user request) and system-level context (e.g harvesting energy availability). We vary several key parameters including application request patterns, geographic locations, time slot length, battery end point voltage and evaluate the performance of our approach in terms of energy efficiency and accuracy. Our simulations use sensor data and system specifications (battery and solar panel specs, sensing and communication costs) from a real sensor network deployment. Our results show that the proposed approach saves significant amounts of energy by avoiding oversampling when application does not need it while using this saved energy to support sampling at high rates to capture events with necessary fidelity when needed. The computational complexity of our approach is lower (O(n)) than the state-of-the-art noninteractive energy allocation algorithm (O(n2)).

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Towards Energy-efficient Collision-free Data Aggregation Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

Authors:

Sain Saginbekov, Arshad Jhumka and Chingiz Shakenov

Abstract: Traditionally, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are deployed with a single sink. Due to the emergence of sophisticated applications, WSNs may require more than one sink, where many nodes forward data to many sinks. Moreover, deploying more than one sink may prolong the network lifetime and address fault tolerance issues. Several protocols have been proposed for WSNs with multiple sinks. However, they are either routing protocols or forward data from many nodes to one sink. In this paper, we propose data aggregation scheduling and energy-balancing algorithms for WSNs with multiple sinks that forward data from many nodes to many sinks. The algorithm fi rst forms trees rooted at virtual sinks and then balances the number of children among nodes to balance energy consumption. Further, the algorithm assigns contiguous slots to sibling nodes to avoid unnecessary energy waste due to active-sleep transitions. We prove a number of theoretical results and the correctness of the algorithms. Simulation and testbed results show the correctness and performance of our algorithms.

Area 6 - Sensor Networks Software, Architectures and Applications

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Energy-efficient Operation of GSM-connected Infrared Rodent Sensor

Authors:

Gábor Paller and Gábor Élő

Abstract: Camera sensors have been deployed in the agriculture for various use cases. Most of the applications tried to infer the health and development of the plants based on image data in different wavelength domains. In this paper, we present our research of rodent population estimation with infrared camera sensors. The usual camera sensor applications in the agricultural domain are quite simple from the sensor architecture point of view as the environment rarely changes. Image capture/transmission at preconfigured moments is usually enough. Rodents move quickly so the sensor must be able to capture images with low capture time interval. As the data link to the server backend is relatively slow, this fast capture rate may require image processing capability in the sensor. The paper analyzes the effects of such an image processing capability, in particular the power consumption trade-offs. Inadequate power management support of the selected embedded Linux platforms is identified as a problem and proposals are made for improvement.

Area 7 - Wireless Sensor Networks

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Performance Improvement in Beacon-enabled LR-WPAN-based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:

Hong Min Bae, Chan Min Park, Shinil Suh, Rana Asif Rehman and Byung-Seo Kim

Abstract: LR-WPANs have two types of networks: beacon–enabled and non-beacon-enabled networks. In beacon-enabled LR-WPANs, the high reliability of Beacon frame transmission is required because all transmissions is controlled by the in-formation in the Beacon frame. However, the process to handle the case for the beacon-loss is not well-defined in the standard. In this paper, an enhanced protocol for the case when a Beacon frame is lost is proposed to improve network performances. The protocol allows a device not receiving a Beacon frame to keep transmit its pending frames only within the minimum period of CAP based on the previously received Beacon frame while the standard prevents the device from sending any pending frame during a whole superframe. By simulation and evaluations, the effectiveness of the proposed protocol on improving performances is proven.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Beyond PulseSync: Less Clock Granularity Impact, More Synchronization Accuracy

Authors:

Xiaoyuan Ma, Weisheng Tang, Jianming Wei, Jun Huang and Bo Zhang

Abstract: Nowadays clock synchronization has become crucial in wireless sensor network (WSN), in particular for those scenarios where the common reference time is vital for applications. The existing approaches often suffer from synchronizing errors since the effect of clock granularity is overlooked. In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed on the basis of PulseSync algorithm. Compared with PulseSync, the improvement of the presented algorithm is twofold: First, clock discreteness is abated via applying filter method. Second, for reducing the deviation of estimated clock skew through several hops, relative logical clock rate is straightly delivered. Our approach, along with the deeper analyses, is further validated with EXP5438 platform using Contiki operating system in Cooja simulator. The result illustrates that the proposed algorithm outperforms PulseSync in synchronization accuracy.

Area 8 - Energy and Environment

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Environmental Data Recovery using Polynomial Regression for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:

Kohei Ohba, Yoshihiro Yoneda, Koji Kurihara, Takashi Suganuma, Hiroyuki Ito, Noboru Ishihara, Kunihiko Gotoh, Koichiro Yamashita and Kazuya Masu

Abstract: In the near feature, large-scale wireless sensor networks will play an important role in our lives by monitoring our environment with large numbers of sensors. However, data loss owing to data collision between the sensor nodes and electromagnetic noise need to be addressed. As the interval of aggregate data is not fixed, digital signal processing is not possible and noise degrades the data accuracy. To overcome these problems, we have researched an environmental data recovery technique using polynomial regression based on the correlations among environmental data. The reliability of the recovered data is discussed in the time, space and frequency domains. The relation between the accuracy of the recovered characteristics and the polynomial regression order is clarified. The effects of noise, data loss and number of sensor nodes are quantified. Clearly, polynomial regression offers the advantage of low-pass filtering and enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of the environmental data. Furthermore, the polynomial regression can recover arbitrary environmental characteristics.

Area 9 - Wireless Sensor Networks

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Evaluation of Range-based Methods for Localization in Grain Storages

Authors:

Jakob Pilegaard Juul, Ole Green and Rune Hylsberg Jacobsen

Abstract: Monitoring biomass storages by using wireless sensor networks with localization capabilities can help prevent economic losses during storage, help to improve the grain quality and lower costs during drying. In this article, the received signal strength was used to perform localization of wireless sensor nodes embedded in a grain storage. A path loss model that takes into account the temperature and moisture content of the grain at each sensor node was used for estimating distance based on received signal strength. The average error of the position estimates was 6.3 m. Tests using near-field electromagnetic ranging were performed to evaluate the performance of the method. It was found that the experimental setup worked best between 2 - 7 m where the average error was 4.9% of the actual distance.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Sensor Localization using Signal Receiving Probability and Procrustes Analysis

Authors:

Ashanie Gunathillake, Andrey V. Savkin, Anura Jayasumana and Aruna Seneviratne

Abstract: The location information of sensors is of great importance for wireless sensor network automation and has been one of the major challenges in large-scale sensor networks. In order to improve the localization accuracy of sensors, the gain of both range-free and range-based approaches need to be concerned. In this paper, we propose a new localization algorithm based on signal receiving probability and Procrustes analysis. A critical observation in range-free technique is sensors can move a non-zero distance without changing it’s connectivity information. To defeat that difficulty and achieve a better ranging measurement, a receiving probability function, which is sensitive to the distance, is used in this paper. The probability function is used to calculate the topological coordinates and then to transform it to physical coordinates, the Procrustes analysis is used. The result shows that our proposed algorithm has been able to calculate the physical coordinates of sensors, which are distributed over an area, consist of obstacles and with different environmental conditions. Moreover, it outperformed the other existing algorithms by a maximum localization error less then 2m.

Area 10 - Intelligent Data Analysis and Processing

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Semantic Multi-sensor Data Processing for Smart Environments

Authors:

Fano Ramparany

Abstract: One salient feature of data produced by the IoT is its heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, future IoT applications including Smart Home, Smart City, Smart Energy services, will require that all data be easily compared, correlated and merged, and that interpretation of this resulting aggregate into higher level context better matches people needs and requirements. In this paper we propose a framework based on semantic technologies for aggregating IoT data. Our approach has been assessed in the domain of the Smart Home with real data provided by Orange Homelive solution. We show that our approach enables simple reasoning mechanisms to be conducted on the aggregated data, so that contexts such as the presence, activities of people as well as abnormal situations requiring corrective actions, be inferred.

Area 11 - Wireless Sensor Networks

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Data Link Layer Effect over Swarm Underwater Network Performance

Authors:

Samuela Persia, Marco Tabacchiera and Silvello Betti

Abstract: The Underwater Swarm is a particular Underwater Network configuration characterized by nodes very close one to each other, with mobility capability. This type of network raises challenges for its effective design and development, for which the only use of acoustic communication as traditionally suggested in underwater communication could be not enough. A new emerging solution could be a hybrid solution that combines the use of acoustic and optical channel in order to overcome the acoustic channel limitations in underwater environment. In this work we want to investigate how the acoustic and optical communications influence the Underwater Swarm performance by considering the Data Link Layer effects over the two different propagation technologies. Performance simulations have been carried out to suggest how a new Underwater Swarm based on hybrid communication technology could be designed.

Area 12 - Sensor Networks Software, Architectures and Applications

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Solar Energy Harvesting Solution for the Wireless Sensor Platform the UWASA Node

Authors:

Thomas Höglund, Reino Virrankoski and Timo Mantere

Abstract: This paper presents a solar energy harvester and energy management prototype developed for the UWASA Node wireless sensor platform. The prototype was designed using a modular approach, requiring only minor hardware modifications in order to allow harvesting from different energy sources. The primary sensor network application for which the design was developed is wind turbine monitoring. The energy harvesting prototype and the performance level it enables for the sensor networking are evaluated through experiments, and methods of optimizing energy harvesting and energy management are discussed.

Area 13 - Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Current and Position Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation for Driving Motor of In-wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicle

Authors:

Young-Joon Kim, Namju Jeon and Hyeongcheol Lee

Abstract: This paper proposes model based current sensor and position sensor fault detection and isolation algorithm for driving motor of In-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. From low level perspective, fault diagnosis conducted and analysed to enhance robustness and stability. Composing state equation of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), current sensor fault diagnosed with parity equation and position sensor fault diagnosed with sliding mode observer. Validation and usefulness of algorithm confirmed based on IPMSM fault occurrence simulation data.

Area 14 - Wireless Sensor Networks

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Analysis of Processing Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:

Ijeoma Okeke, Alastair Allen, David Hendry and Fabio Verdicchio

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are networks of low-cost communication devices with sensing and computational capabilities enabling remote, real-time measurement, monitoring and control of divers physical and environmental parameters. As WSNs are typically battery powered, energy-aware techniques are critical for extending its lifetime. Aside from energy-efficient communication protocols, distributed processing strategies are being explored whereby,computational capabilities of sensor nodes are utilised to locally process sensed data in order to reduce communication cost. However, as local processing increases, the impact of processing energy cost becomes significant creating a need to analyse WSNs under this emergent scenario as previous work have focused mostly on communication cost. We analysed the energy cost for WSN under different processing architectures. We used a fairness metric to quantify the fairness of energy cost distribution in the network. Our results showed a positive correlation between fairness and network lifetime. Hence, we argue that local processing can be exploited to reduce transmission and improve system performance without adversely reducing network lifetime. We conclude that although local processing marginally increases node energy consumption, it improves overall network life time as energy cost is evenly distributed in the network. Moreover, it enhances network maintenance as nodes have similar lifetimes.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Convergecast Algorithms for Wake-up Transceivers

Authors:

Amir Bannoura, Leonhard Reindl and Christian Schindelhauer

Abstract: New transceiver and receiver hardware technology allow the usage of special wake-up signals, which are able to awake neighbored sensor nodes from the sleep. However, such messages need more energy ew than those standard message transmissions em, when nodes are awake. Furthermore, the distance range rw is also smaller than the distance range rm of standard messages. Therefore, it does not completely replace duty-cycling for the convergecast problem in wireless sensor networks. We present a theoretical and practical discussion of energyefficient algorithms for the convergecast problem. First, we present a model based on the current technology and show that without constraints on the delivery times wake-up signals are obsolete, when arbitrary long sleeping times are allowed. The wake-up graph Gw and the message graph Gm are modeled by planar rwand rm-disk-graphs. Then, we give a competitive analysis for the general case, where we discuss an online D-convergecast algorithms bounded by competitive energy ratios. Finally, we present simulation results for these algorithmic ideas in the plane by considering the energy efficiency and the latency of data delivery.

Area 15 - Energy and Environment

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 48
Title:

On the Effect of Sensing-holes in PIR-based Occupancy Detection Systems

Authors:

Abdelraouf Ouadjaout, Noureddine Lasla, Djamel Djenouri and Cherif Zizoua

Abstract: Sensing-holes in PIR-based motion detection systems are considered, and their impact on occupancy monitoring applications is investigated. To our knowledge, none of prior works on PIR-based systems consider the presence of these holes, which represents the major cause for low precision of such systems in environments featured with very low mobility of occupants, such as working offices. We consider optimal placement of PIRs that ensures maximum coverage in presence of holes. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem (MILP). Based on this formulation, an experimental study on a typical working office has been carried out. The empirical results quantify the effects of the holes on the detection accuracy and demonstrate the enhancement provided by the optimal deployment of the solution.

Area 16 - Sensor Networks Software, Architectures and Applications

Posters
Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Performance Analysis of Fountain Codes in Wireless Body Area Networks

Authors:

Nabila Samouni, Abdelillah Jilbab and Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract: Wireless Body area network (WBAN) has emerged in recent years as a special case of wireless sensor network (WSN) targeted at monitoring physiological human beings. One of the major challenges in this network is to prolong the network and node lifetime. The data transmitted from the sensors are vulnerable to corruption by noisy channels, reflections and distortions. This paper investigates the reliability of transmissions within WBAN and compares the performance provide by Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) scheme and Luby Transform code (LT). The Theoretical and practical results presented in this paper show that the use of LT codes in WBAN has a better performance not only in BER, but also in resources and energy consumption.

Area 17 - Energy and Environment

Posters
Paper Nr: 38
Title:

Sensor Array based on Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Detecting Gas Mixtures and Its Sensing Properties

Authors:

Byung-Min Kim and Jung-Sik Kim

Abstract: Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are very attractive owing to their low cost simplicity of use, large number of detectable gases and various potential application fields. However, the MOS gas sensor has a serious shortcoming of low selectivity in a mixture of gases, In this study MOS micro gas sensors were fabricated for detecting carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (HCHO) gases, as well as their binary mixed gas systems. Four sensing materials, Pd-SnO2 for CO, In2O3 for NOX, Ru-WO3 for NH3, and SnO2-ZnO for HCHO were synthesized using a sol-gel method and deposited in the middle of sensor platform. The micro gas sensor platform was fabricated by using a MEMS technology. The sensing electrode and micro heater were designed to be a co-planar type structure with the Pt thin film layer. The gas sensitivity and sensing behaviour for gas mixtures suggested that the selective adsorption of one gas with respect to others occurred for gas mixture and resulted in good selectivity for a particular gas species. Furthermore, the careful pattern recognition of sensing data obtained with sensor array makes it possible to distinguish a gas species from gas mixture and to measure its concentration.

Area 18 - Intelligent Data Analysis and Processing

Posters
Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Towards Distortion-tolerant Radio-interferometric Object Tracking

Authors:

Gergely Zachár and Gyula Simon

Abstract: Recently radio-interferometric object tracking methods were proposed, which apply inexpensive radio transmitter and receiver nodes to generate and measure radio-interferometric signals. The measured phase values can be used to track the position of one or more moving receivers. In these methods the ideal phase values, calculated from the position of the nodes, are heavily used. Unfortunately, multipath effects in indoor environments can significantly distort the ideal phase values, thus the accuracy and robustness of the former radio-interferometric methods is challenged. In this paper a novel position estimation method is proposed, which is less sensitive and thus more robust to distortions of radio-interferometric space. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to that of earlier radio-interferometric object tracking methods using simulations and real measurements.

Area 19 - Sensor Networks Software, Architectures and Applications

Posters
Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Determination of Ascorbic Acid Level in Orange Juice using an Open-source Poteniostat & Screen Printed Electrodes

Authors:

Ahmad Ali, Iman Morsi and Maha Sharkas

Abstract: In this research we describe the use of cyclic voltammetry concept in order to determine the level of Ascorbic Acid in orange juice. The proposed method consists of an open-source poteniostat and screen printed electrodes. The Current result from the chemical reaction is proportional to the concentration of the Ascorbic Acid. This method was applied to different commercial samples of orange juice and the results were used to determine which one has the most preservation of Ascorbic Acid.

Area 20 - Intelligent Data Analysis and Processing

Posters
Paper Nr: 49
Title:

A Markovian-based Approach for Daily Living Activities Recognition

Authors:

Zaineb Liouane, Tayeb Lemlouma, Philippe Roose, Fréderic Weis and Hassani Messaoud

Abstract: Recognizing activities of daily living plays an important role in healthcare. It is necessary to use an adapted model to simulate the human behavior in a domestic space to monitor the patient harmonically and to intervene in the necessary time. In this paper we tackle this problem using the hierarchical hidden Markov model for representing and recognizing complex indoor activities, we propose a new grammar “Home By Room Activities language” to facilitate the complexity of human scenarios and hold us account to the abnormal activities.