SENSORNETS 2018 Abstracts


Area 1 - Energy and Environment

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Energy-aware Scheme for Animal Recognition in Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

Authors:

Afnan Algobail, Adel Soudani and Saad Alahmadi

Abstract: Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) have drawn tremendous attention due to their promising potential audio-rich applications such as battlefield surveillance, environment monitoring, and ambient intelligence. In this context, designing an approach for target recognition using sensed audio data represents a very attractive solution that offers a wide range of deployment opportunities. However, this approach faces the limited resource’s availability in the wireless sensor. The power consumption is considered to be the major concern for large data transmission and extensive processing. Thus, the design of successful audio based solution for target recognition should consider a trade-off between application efficiency and sensor capabilities. The main contribution of this paper is to design a low-power scheme for target detection and recognition based on acoustic signal. This scheme, using features extraction, is intended to locally detect a specific target and to notify a remote server with low energy consumption. This paper details the specification of the proposed scheme and explores its performances for low-power target recognition. The results showed the hypothesis' validity, and demonstrate that the proposed approach can produce classifications as accurate as 96.88% at a very low computational cost.

Posters
Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Sensor System with Multi-point Sampling Applied to IAQ Measurements

Authors:

Andrzej Szczurek, Monika Maciejewska and Paulina Szczepanek

Abstract: Quality of indoor air (IAQ) is one of considerable concerns of today. Its evaluation through measurement is highly requested, but difficult. The reason is the numerosity of influencing factors involved as well as sig- nificant temporal and spatial variability of IAQ. In this work, we proposed a sensor system with multi-point sampling for this purpose. It is based on semiconductor gas sensor. The measurements were performed in a concert hall. The measurement procedure included sensor exposure to gas samples delivered from four sampling points, interchangeably with purified air for sensor regeneration. The obtained results show that the sensor system with multi-point sampling is a promising concept for indoor air monitoring. It was demon-strated that the system is applicable to determine the influence of occupants on IAQ. It is possible, because human beings release VOCs, which are measurable by semiconductor gas sensors. Sensor regeneration plays crucial role in the system operation. For achieving valuable results it is necessary to apply sensor signal pre-processing, which consist in baseline correction.

Area 2 - Intelligent Data Analysis and Processing

Posters
Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Comparison of Camera based and Inertial Measurement Unit based Motion Analysis

Authors:

Seongho Jang, Si-bog Park, Sang-bog Moon, Jae Min Kim and Shi-uk Lee

Abstract: Camera-based 3D motion analyzers are widely used to analyze body movements and gait, but they are expensive and require a large dedicated space. This study investigated whether inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based systems can replace such systems by analyzing kinematic measurement parameters. IMUs were attached to the abdomen and thigh and the shank and foot of both legs. The participant completed a 10 m-gait course 10 times and the hips, knees, and ankle joints were observed from the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes during each gait cycle. The experiments were conducted with both a camera-based system and an IMU-based system. The measured gait analysis data were evaluated for validity and reliability using RMSE. In this regard, the differences between the RMSE values of the two systems determined through kinematic parameters ranged from a minimum of 1.39 to a maximum of 3.86. These results confirm that IMU-based systems can reliably replace camera-based systems for clinical body motion analysis and gait analysis.

Area 3 - Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Key-Server Adaptation to IoT Systems

Authors:

Jacek Wytrębowicz

Abstract: This paper presents an opinion on future evolution of secure communication in IoT systems. Due to advances in cryptography, in processing power of integrated circuits, and in energy harvesting, the constraints of today’s IoT devices will weaken and asymmetric encryption could be widely applied. The number of IoT related certificates would grow; so appropriate certificate servers should appear to support them. The paper points a direction for further works on such infrastructure, indicating suitable technology to be applied.

Area 4 - Sensor Networks Software, Architectures and Applications

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

A Self-duty-cycled Digital Baseband for Energy-enhanced Wake-up Receivers

Authors:

Sadok Bdiri, Oussama Brini and Faouzi Derbel

Abstract: An ultra low-power digital baseband (DBB) for Wake-up Receiver (WuRx) is presented. Based on low power microcontroller (MCU), the DBB power gates the WuRx peripherals to further reduce their average energy consumption. It issues low duty-cycling signals with very short power-on periods, allowing very low latency between a transmitted WuPt and its detection. The latency and power consumption tradeoff can be adjusted to meet different application requirements. The presented circuit implements low-power listening protocol as a duty-cycle scheme and also emphasizes the possibility to decode more than 512-bit address pattern.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Fast and Reliable Update Protocols in WSNs During Software Development, Testing and Deployment

Authors:

Tobias Schwindl, Klaus Volbert and Sebastian Bock

Abstract: A lot of research has been done in the area of Wireless Sensor Networks during the past years. Today, Wireless Sensor Networks are in field in many different ways and applications (e.g. energy management services, heat and water billing, smoke detectors). Nevertheless, research and development is continued in this area. After the network is deployed, software updates are performed very rarely, but during development and testing one typical, high frequented task is to deploy a new firmware to thousands of nodes. In this paper, we consider such a software update for a special, but well-known and frequently used sensor network platform. There exist some interesting research papers about updating sensor nodes, but we have a special focus on the technical update process. In this context, we show the reasons why these existing update processes do not cover our challenges. Our goal is to allow a developer to update thousands of nodes reliably and very fast during development and testing. For this purpose, it is not so important to perform the best update with regard to energy consumption. We do not need a multi hop protocol, because all devices are in range, e.g., in a laboratory. In our work, we present a model of the update process and give very fast protocols to solve it. The results of our extensive simulations show that the developed protocols do a fast, scalable and reliable update.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Localization System based on Ultra Low-power Radio Landmarks

Authors:

Fabian Höflinger, Joan Bordoy, Rui Zhang, Amir Bannoura, Nikolas Simon, Leonhard Reindl and Christian Schindelhauer

Abstract: In this paper we present a novel indoor localization system using external reference landmarks as a guidance system for emergency responders. The landmarks are based on low-power wake-up nodes which can be integrated into smoke detectors. The radio wake-up technology is equipped in the system to extend the lifetime of landmarks. While in sleep mode our landmarks have an overall power consumption of 66μW making them ready-to-use in case of an emergency for up to 5 years. The landmarks are small and cost-efficient and may be integrated into the building infrastructure. The positioning is achieved by combining the radio ranging and IMU based dead reckoning to overcome the disadvantages of both systems. The experimental results show that the proposed system is able to outperform both standalone systems and meanwhile maintain the low power consumption.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Wheelchair Exercise Monitor Development Platform - An Application for Wireless EMG Sensors

Authors:

Amit Pal, Kevin Monsalvo, James Sunthonlap, Paolo Arguelles, Aldo Adame, Jackson Tu, Ellie Tjara, James Velasco, Terrence Sarmiento, Roxanna Pebdani, Christine Dy, Stefan Keslacy, Ray de Leon and Deborah Won

Abstract: We present here a novel application for wireless EMG sensors. To combat the physical inactivity which has tended toward cardiovascular disease in individuals who use wheelchairs, we have developed a monitoring system to encourage these individuals to exercise. Wireless sensors are used to monitor kinematic or physiological metrics, which inform the user of their activity levels during exercise and to track progress of their fitness levels over time. In particular, a new completely wireless, wearable EMG sensor (Dynofit, Inc., TX) is integrated with accelerometer and heart rate sensor data to monitor energy expenditure. The sensors communicate with a custom designed mobile app which facilitates exercise at home, with the aim of helping individuals who use a wheelchair to overcome what are commonly hindrances to exercising.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Sensornet Early-warning System Integration

Authors:

Stefania Nanni and Gianluca Mazzini

Abstract: In order to increase the resilience of the regional territory to extreme rainfall phenomena, LepidaSpA has enhanced an already existing IOT platform, Sensornet, created to manage heterogeneous sensor networks extended all over the entire territory of the Emilia-Romagna Region, introducing some new data not related to physical measures, such as rivers level or amount of rainfall, but to their forecast. The novelty and the strategic importance of the project presented in this paper is the incremental integration within Sensornet platform of virtual sensors, based on hydrological simulation models and meteorological modelling, sharing the same data model initially defined for physical ones, thus making available not only the continuous monitoring of phenomena and their evolution, but also the generation of early warning in case of critical thresholds with a forecast up to 12/24 hours. The capability to detect forerunners constitutes a fundamental requirement to increase the ability to recognize in advance critical scenarios and to support their management.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Area Coverage Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network by Semi-random Deployment

Authors:

Adda Boualem, Youcef Dahmani, Abdelkader Maatoug and Cyril De-runz

Abstract: Area Coverage is a difficult problem to solve with a minimum number of sensor nodes for maximum time duration, especially in wide areas. Among the solutions proposed for this problem there is the deployment with its two types random and deterministic. The disadvantages of deterministic deployment are configured in the Area of Interest (AoI) limitation, and random deployment is configured in the non-equitable distribution of sensor nodes on AoI. This problem affects power consumption and connectivity; as a result, it affects the coverage of the area of interest. In this paper we have proposed a third type of hybrid deployment that gathers the advantages and minimizes the disadvantage of the application of the random deployment and deterministic deployment. This type has two steps; the anticipate configuration step and the scheduling process step. A comparative study was done to show the effectiveness of this type to optimize coverage in the vast area of interest less danger and more interests.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Target Recognition Approach for Efficient Sensing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

Authors:

Manal Alsabhan and Adel Soudani

Abstract: In Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN), image-based sensing applications face the issue of energy efficiency and the availability of resources. This issue leads to image sensing and transmission severely exhausting the sensor energy, potentially flooding the network with unnecessary data at the application level. Compression of the image fails to solve this issue efficiently, due to the complexities of the algorithm. Thus, the approach of employing image sensing to detect an event of interest locally prior to transmission of the Region of Interest (ROI) would avoid useless data transmission, and consequently save energy. This approach promises to extend the life of the entire network while reducing the sensing time. The main contribution of this work is to establish a low-complexity scheme for image sensing in WMSN. This scheme based on 2D General Fourier shape descriptors for target recognition and notification to the end user. This current paper outlines the specification of the proposed scheme and its implementation on wireless multimedia sensors. It addresses the performances evaluation regarding time and energy consumption. The results reveal the high levels of accuracy of the proposed approach in efficiently recognizing the target and notifying the end user. It shows a significant performance that overcomes the efficiency of alternative similar sensing approaches that have been proposed in the literature.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Performance Specifications of Market Physiological Sensors for Efficient Driver Drowsiness Detection System

Authors:

Messaoud Doudou and Abdelmadjid Bouabdallah

Abstract: Significant advances in bio-sensors technologies hold promise to monitor human physiological signals in real time. In the context of driving safety, such devices are knowing notable research investigations to objectively detect early stages of driver drowsiness that impair driving performance under various conditions. Seeking for low-cost, compact yet reliable sensing technology that can provide a solution to drowsy state problem is challenging. The contribution of this paper is to study fundamental performance specifications required for the design of efficient physiological signals based driver drowsiness detection systems. Existing measurement products are then accessed and ranked following the discussed performance specifications. The finding of this work is to provide a tool to facilitate making the appropriate hardware choice to implement efficient yet low-cost drowsiness detection system using existing market physiological sensors products.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Bayesian Multi-sensor Data Fusion for Target Identification - Applications in Naval and Ground based Command and Control Systems

Authors:

Albert Bodenmüller

Abstract: Military Command and Control Systems have to deal with a wide range of different sensors and sources. Besides traditional information sources like IFF, Tactical Data Links and ESM sensors additional sources like AIS, Blue Force Tracking and GMTI Radar become important sources for target identification and classification. A correct identification is an important prerequisite to prevent fratricide and civilian collateral damages and to complete the Situational Awareness. This paper gives an overview of our solution for the extension of the Bayesian identification process in order to establish a tactical picture for naval but also for air and ground targets. For some sensors and important identification source like Automatic Identification System (AIS), Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and GMTI Radar our solution approach will be detailed.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Smart Device Prototype for Automated Emergency Calls - Using SIP and TTS to Reach Legacy Emergency Services

Authors:

Mihai Buf, Marco Manso and Barbara Guerra

Abstract: The Internet-of-Things (IoT) promises to transform our society into smart environments, incorporating smart objects that cooperate to fulfil specific goals. Amongst its many applications, emergencies can also benefit from IoT principles and use of automation for a better emergency response and reducing the number of fatalities. Smart devices can be used to detect emergency events (e.g., fire, presence of hazardous gases). In this paper, we present a prototype applying the IoT paradigm to the concept of automated calls. The prototype is capable to measure environmental parameters - such as smoke, temperature and gas - to determine the occurrence of a serious incident (e.g., fire in room) and automatically initiate an emergency call. To make our approach interoperable with most platforms and operational practices (including emergency services that mostly rely on voice calls), the system generates an audio call using preformatted messages and a text-to-speech engine. Our approach brings the benefits of automated calls without requiring significant investments to existing infrastructures (including those used by emergency services).

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

A Low Cost Solution for NOAA Remote Sensing

Authors:

Edoardo Ardizzone, Alessandro Bruno, Francesco Gugliuzza and Roberto Pirrone

Abstract: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather satellites adopt Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors to acquire remote sensing data and broadcast Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) images. The orientation of the scan lines is perpendicular to the orbit of the satellite. In this paper we propose a new low cost solution for NOAA remote sensing. More in detail, our method focuses on the possibility of directly sampling the modulated signal and processing it entirely in software enabled by recent breakthroughs on Software Defined Radios (SDR) and CPU computational speed, while keeping the costs extremely low. We aim to achieve good results with inexpensive SDR hardware, like the RTL-SDR (a repurposed DVB-T USB dongle). Nevertheless, we faced some problems caused by hardware limits such as high receiver noise figure and low ADC resolution. Furthermore, we detected several inherent drawbacks of frequent tuner saturations. For this purpose we developed a software-hardware integrated system able to perform the following steps: satellite pass prediction, time scheduling, signal demodulation, image cropping and filtering. Although we employed low cost components, we obtained good results in terms of signal demodulation, synchronization and image reconstruction.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

A Model-based Approach for Self-healing IoT Systems - Position Paper

Authors:

Franziska Kühn, Horst Hellbrück and Stefan Fischer

Abstract: IoT systems become more and more important in our daily life. They will perform monitoring and control tasks which are often safety-critical. Therefore, it is obviously important that IoT systems work reliably, i.e., fulfill their specification. Even if something unexpected happens, it is required that the system moves back into a correct state which we name self-healing. In this paper, we present our idea for a model-based approach for self-healing IoT systems. Based on a formal specification of the system’s properties, we derive monitors which observe the system behavior and trigger healing actions when necessary. In IoT systems, the placement of such systems becomes important due to the increased unreliability of single devices. The paper outlines basic ideas where to place monitors and how to assign monitoring tasks to IoT devices.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Hydrodynamic Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Unstable Sensor Networks with a Tsunami Model of Acute Events

Authors:

Ekaterina V. Aleksandrova and Vladimir A. Bashkin

Abstract: An algorithm of adaptive multi-path routing in unstable sensor networks with frequent reconfigurations is presented. The model is based on the discrete imitation of water streams and water waves in the network of river-connected reservoirs. The hydrodynamic phenomena of water currents, riverbed erosion and sediments deposition are used as convenient models of different algorithmic features of the routing scheme. Acute network events (topology changes, node failures, gateway migrations etc) are treated by imitating of such natural phenomena as underwater seismic activities and surface tsunami waves.

Area 5 - Wireless Sensor Networks

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Impact of Temperature Variations on the Reliability of LoRa - An Experimental Evaluation

Authors:

Carlo Alberto Boano, Marco Cattani and Kay Römer

Abstract: Temperature variations are known to affect the performance of wireless sensor networks deployed outdoors. Whilst the impact of temperature on IEEE 802.15.4 transceivers has long been investigated by the research community, still little is known about how temperature affects the performance of increasingly popular long-range wireless technologies such as LoRa. To fill this gap, this paper presents an experimental evaluation of the reliability of LoRa in the presence of temperature variations. First, we highlight that temperature can have a significant impact on LoRa’s communication performance and show that an increase in temperature can be sufficient to transform a perfect LoRa link into an almost useless one. We then carry out a detailed investigation on the performance of different LoRa physical settings with fluctuating temperatures and show that an optimal selection can help in increasing the probability of packet reception and is hence key to mitigate temperature-induced effects. We believe that our results will serve as a reference to orient researchers and system designers employing LoRa to build large-scale low-power wide area networks.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Evaluation of Multi-Channel Communication for an Outdoor Industrial Wireless Sensor Network

Authors:

Ruan D. Gomes, Emerson B. Gomes, Iguatemi E. Fonseca, Marcelo S. Alencar and Cesar Benavente-Peces

Abstract: This paper describes an experimental study which investigates relevant properties of multi-channel wireless communications in an outdoor industrial environment. A testbed of IEEE 802.15.4 radios was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the 16 channels defined by the standard, at all the nodes, simultaneously. From the collected data, some relevant facts are discussed, such as the spatial variations in channel quality, the differences in the characteristics of different channels, the link asymmetry, and the non-stationary characteristics of the channel. The possible problems that can arise in the deployment of industrial wireless sensor networks, based on the characteristics of the standards developed for this type of network, are described, as well as some possible solutions.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Design of Wireless Sensor Network in the Railway

Authors:

Nagateru Iwasawa, Tomoki Kawamura, Michiko Nozue, Satoko Ryuo and Nariya Iwaki

Abstract: In recent years, research and development on the condition monitoring systems using the wireless sensor network in the railway have been proceeded. However, there are few cases of the wireless sensor network design based on the features of the railway environment. In this paper, we propose the procedure to design the wireless sensor network in the railway. And we introduce the demonstration test and the result in the railway slope based on this procedure.